Fats include oils and fats belonging to the main group of nutrients and have many essential roles for the body.
First of all, it is an important source of energy: 1 gram of fat when burned in the body for 9 Kcal (1 gram of protein or powder only gives 4 Kcal). Grease is a good solvent to dissolve vitamins A, D, E, K which are vitamins with many important functions in the body. The body wants to absorb and use well these vitamins must have fat.
Fat is an important component of many essential substances for the body. The structures of fat such as phootphatite (especially Lexithin), xerebrozit … participate in the structure of cells and humors of organizations, especially the brain organization. Unsaturated fatty acids such as Linoleic acid, arachidon-ic acid, DHA … are constituents of many compounds with high biological activity, which are essential for the structure of cell membranes, association, and organization. nerve.
Fat helps the child’s mental and physical development as it plays an important role in the central nervous system of children. Fat has a delicious taste that creates an appetite.
During the first years of life, children grow and develop rapidly both physically and mentally. Child’s body weight doubled after 6 months, tripled after 1 year and quadrupled at 2 years old. Brain weight also increases rapidly after birth: brain birth weighs only 350g, at 1 year old weighs 3 times (about 1100g). The brain and nerve tissues are particularly rich in fat. The deficiency of fat in the daily diet affects the functions of many organs, especially the nervous system. Therefore, for children, the diet should ensure enough fat. For children under 1 year old, the energy provided by fat must be over 40%, for children 1-2 years old, the energy provided by fat is about 30-35% of the total dietary energy. Young children need to be breastfed because the high fat content of breast milk is rich in DHA and EPA, which are especially important fatty acids for brain development. From 6 months, when children eat complementary foods (weaning foods), it is necessary to use a balanced combination between animal fats and vegetable fats in children’s meals. For adults, fat is also essential. In addition to the roles mentioned above, fat is also involved in the formation and structure of sex hormones, maintaining softness of the skin.
Generally, in vegetable oils such as sesame oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil … there are many essential unsaturated fatty acids. These acids have many advantages, but due to the structure of double bonds, in the process of metabolism, intermediate products such as aldehydes, peroxides … are harmful to the body. On the other hand, there is little or no arachidonic acid in vegetable oils, which is an essential unsaturated fatty acid that plays many roles in a child’s growth. Animal fat is high in cholesterol, but for children, cholesterol is also necessary because it has many roles for the child’s body (unlike the elderly, it is necessary to limit fat, reduce cholesterol because adults are no longer growing and through transition. With long-term chemistry in the body, cholesterol has been increased in the bloodstream and retained in the walls of blood vessels and some organs). Animal fat is rich in vitamins A, D and arachidonic acid. According to many nutrition experts, the ratio between animal fat and vegetable fat should be 70% and 30%. Therefore, should use a combination of oils and fats for children. If a child’s meal contains meat, eggs, or milk (which has a certain amount of animal fat), when adding fat, you can use 50% oil and 50% fat (an oily meal , a fatty meal). Adults should also eat a combination of oil and fat, but should eat more oil and less fat, the ratio should be 50-60% vegetable oil and 40-50% animal fat. For the elderly, the percentage of animal fat should be reduced even more (about 30%).
In the processing of fats, it should be noted: at a temperature not exceeding 1020C, lipids (oils, fats) do not change significantly apart from liquefaction. When heated for a long time at high temperature, unsaturated fatty acids will be oxidized to lose beneficial effects on the body, and the double bonds in their structure are quickly broken down to form intermediate products such as are peroxides, aldehydes … harmful to the body. When baking food on the fire, fat drips down and creates aroma, but in fact, the aromatic carbuahy-dro is not good for the body and it is one of the carcinogens. Therefore, it is not recommended to reuse oil and grease that has been fried at high temperatures. Do not buy fried food, roasted commercially available food (rolls, donuts, roasted chicken …) when the oil and fat pan for processing is no longer clear, has been used many times and is burnt black.