People from the moment of birth need to be nourished. For babies, the flow of breast milk has helped them grow up healthy from the first days of life. The market today has a wide variety of milk replacements, but there is no such thing as perfect breast milk.
Breast milk is not simply a collection of nutrients, it is a living fluid with a very high biological complex, both active protective and immunomodulating.
Anti-infectious properties in colostrum and mature milk have both a soluble and a cellular component, soluble components include immunoglobulin (IgA – IgM IgG), lysozyme, lactoferin, binary factor, enzymes and other immunomodulators. Cell components include macrophage (containing IgA, lysozyme and lactoferin) limpho cells, granulocytes, and epithelial cells. These components are highly concentrated in colostrum and decreased in mature milk.
SIgA is the most important globulin component, it is produced by emulsion cells (Plasma) under the epithelium of the intestinal system. Study on colostrum samples with the highest SIgA immunoglobulin concentration in the first day, decreasing gradually on day 2 and 3, only about 1/4 compared to the first day (Dao Ngoc Dien – Nguyen Van Bang & CS). Then it is necessary to breastfeed the baby soon after birth, so that the baby can suck colostrum which is suitable for the baby’s digestive system and protects the baby’s body against infections right after birth.
The advantages of breastfeeding
Breast milk has been confirmed as the perfect food for the first 6 months of life.
Clean, bacterial-free breast milk contains many antibodies against many different types of bacteria, white blood cells that kill bacteria.
Strengthening the bond and love between mother and child, helping the baby develop normally.
Strengthen mother’s health: Help stop postpartum bleeding fast, fast uterine contraction; Mother quickly recovered her health; Breastfeeding regularly helps prevent pregnancy.
Convenience: Breast milk is readily available, not processed; Breast milk never gets sour or spoiled in the breast, even if the mother has not breastfed for a few days; Breast milk is not purchased, so it is inexpensive.
SIgA is also produced from the mammary gland, it is resistant to proteolytic enzymes and low pH, soluble IgA coats the intestinal mucosa like “white paint” and prevents it from being penetrated by pathogens. . It is believed that the IgA antibodies encapsulate bacterial toxins and macromolecular antigens thus blocking their access to the epithelium. Breast milk also stimulates the child’s own production of SIgA.
Lysozyme is an enzyme with properties that kill bacteria and fight some viruses, in breast milk 5,000 times greater than cow’s milk.
Lactoferin is an unsaturated iron-coated glucoprotein that protects iron against iron-dependent living microorganisms, therefore it is bacteriostatic. Like SIgA, lactoferin tolerates proteolytic activities.
The binary factor mentioned in the dissolved component, which is a nitrogen-containing carbohydrate, easily hydrolyzed by heat, promotes intestinal deposition by lactonbacilli in the presence of lactose. As a result, low pH in intestinal lumen will inhibit the growth of E. coli Gram (-) bacteria and fungi such as Candida albican.
Any pathogen that a mother is infected with stimulates the production of specific antibodies that are present in the milk that her baby receives.
In vitro, breastmilk has been shown to be active against many pathogens such as E.Coli, V.Choleare, Salmonella, Shigella … and has characteristic protection against many of these pathogens ( including Rubella virus, Herpes simple … and parasites like G.Lamblia). To date, there are no studies on the potential preventive and therapeutic role of breast milk in HIV infection.
The activity of the cellular components of breast milk remains unclear. The highest concentration levels are macrophages, followed by lymphocytes and granulocytes. The cells prevent infection by synthesizing phagocytes (white blood cells) and the secretion of certain high levels of immunity with microorganisms to which the mother comes into contact.