When children enter puberty each day needs 2,200 – 2,400 calories, equivalent to the amount of adult food. If you do not provide the right and enough children, your child will suffer from nutritional deficiencies leading to slow completion and development of body parts.
Puberty is the time when a child develops strongly, rapidly in physical strength, the nervous and endocrine system changes, which is highlighted by the increased activity of the gonads, causing changes in appearance and growth. of the child’s body. At this time, in addition to the development and completion of the body is also the time when the child is most active, so it is necessary to have a very good nutrition for the child at this stage.
Protein: Now that puberty develops muscles, the amount of protein needed is higher than that of an adult. Protein accounts for 14 – 15% of total energy in the daily diet equivalent to 70 – 80g / day. The amount of protein obtained from foods such as meat, fish, shrimp, crab, eggs …. In which animal protein is best because animal foods contain more iron – iron plays an important role in the process of hematopoiesis. Therefore, it is advisable to encourage children to eat a lot of animal protein to build cell structures and perfect the development of sex hormones. In addition, children at this age have many activities exposed to the environment and living environment, so they also need protein to join the immune system to increase resistance.
Fat is also essential for children. Oils and fats not only help children eat well, but also provide good energy and help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, K. At this stage, saturated fat is also needed. In foods containing a lot of animal protein and unsaturated fats in cooking oils and fish, children should eat both animal fats and vegetable oils, about 40 – 50 grams per day.
Starch: is the main source of energy for the body, accounting for 60-70% of the energy contained in rice, flour, and processed products, potatoes, tubers … It is recommended to choose raw sugar powder to provide fiber. Good for the digestive tract and prevent obesity.
Calcium: very essential for puberty, if provided enough will help strong bones and maximum bone density help children develop well in height and prevent osteoporosis in the future. Every day children need 1,000 – 1,200mg calcium. Calcium is found in milk, both cow’s milk and soy milk, seafood, fish bones (so fish can be eaten with bones). Should drink 400-500ml of milk / day.
Iron: Girls entering puberty need more iron than boys because of blood loss during their menstrual cycle. So boys only need 12-18 mg of iron / day in which girls need 20 mg of iron / day. Iron is abundant in animal viscera and viscera: liver, heart, oval … egg yolks, beans, green vegetables with vitamin C to help absorb iron better … symptoms of fatigue, forgetfulness, drowsiness, blue skin …
Vitamins: These are essential micronutrients for the body. Vitamin A deficiency can cause eye diseases, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections; growth retardation. In the absence of vitamin C, collagen synthesis is hindered, reducing the process of cell formation in the vessel walls, connective tissue, bones, teeth, and reducing the resistance.
In addition, you should also remind children to drink water because water is necessary for all metabolic activities of the body, about 1.5 – 2 liters of water / day. And instructing children to learn about food hygiene and safety to help children choose foods that ensure hygiene, should not feed children on the street.
In addition to diet, physical exercise is very important at this age, because this is the last stage for children to increase height, after puberty, children will grow very slowly, not even increase. height too. Sports that help children increase height such as swimming, running, cycling, badminton … Children gain a good height is also a way to prevent overweight and obesity to help reduce the risk of metabolic diseases later.