Respiratory tract infections in children can be seen all year round, but when the season changes, especially in the rainy season, when it is cold, the child is more susceptible to disease.
When a child has this disease, family members need to be monitored because the disease can be complicated.
Common respiratory diseases
The most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract during the season are VA inflammation, tonsillitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis … These diseases can occur acute but can be chronic, every time. Seasonal weather is a disease. Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, if not treated completely, is very likely to turn into lower respiratory tract inflammation (bronchitis, pneumonia), especially acute bronchitis and pulmonary forms.
Children with respiratory infections have fever, cough, runny nose, and sneeze. Fever can be moderate or high fever of 39 – 40oC, fever increases and decreases but most of them are constant fever, some cases may have convulsions, especially children under 5 years old. However, there are some children with severe respiratory infections but no fever or low fever, especially children with rickets, malnutrition. Accompanied by a fever is a cough, fussy crying, poor sleep. Coughing is sometimes just a success, but in many cases, children are coughing up all day and night. In some cases, children with respiratory infections accompanied by difficulty breathing. If only upper respiratory tract infections, children mainly have difficulty breathing due to nasal congestion, but lower respiratory tract inflammation, shortness of breath is due to bronchial edema or because the bronchi is both edema and spasm (spasmodic bronchitis or also called bronchial asthma). Symptoms of dyspnea are purple lips, bulging nasal wings, concave sternum or concave fissures of the intercostals, and dyspnea and number of breaths.
What to do when a child has respiratory infections?
When children with respiratory infections have symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, runny nose but no fever or mild fever, children should be closely monitored at home and should not use antibiotics and antipyretics. To know if your child has a fever or not, you need to use a thermometer to measure your child’s temperature. The thermometer can be placed in the corner of the mouth or in the anus or armpits. If the thermometer is in the armpit, add 1/2 degree. Do not use your hands to feel a child’s forehead for fever. If the child has a lot of cough, fatigue, fever above 38oC and especially having difficulty breathing, it is necessary to promptly send the child to the nearest medical facility to be examined and promptly treated to prevent children suffering from acute pneumonia.
While not in time to take the child to a doctor, if the child has a fever above 38oC, they should not wear many clothes for the child but should wear loose, airy clothes to easily release heat. Children need to cool down by using a towel dipped in a basin of clean water 2 degrees lower than the child’s temperature, wiping the forehead, armpits, groin (every few, three hours) or applying a wet towel to the forehead, armpits. , groin. Do not use ice or cold water to cool the child, because too cold water will interfere with the child’s heat loss, the child will have a higher fever, more dangerous. If the child still has a fever above 38oC if he wipes it off, he or she can take Paracetamol orally with the following dosage: <3 months / age: 40mg,> 3-11 months / year of age using 80mg; Children 24 months / year old use 120mg and children over 2 years old use 10mg / kg body weight.
Children should be given a liquid, warm food and drink enough water daily. If your baby is still breastfed, just breastfeed as usual or increase the number of times and increase the time as much as possible. If the child has moderate fever or high fever but cannot let him go to the hospital, he / she needs to drink 5,63g of ozone solution (ORS) / pack, mix one sachet into 200ml of boiled water, let it cool. The dosage is as follows: for infants, 50ml / time x 2-3 times / day. Children from 2 – 6 years old, take 100ml / time x 2-3 times / day. Children from 6-12 years old, take 150ml / time x 2-3 times / day. If ORS is not available, you can use salt porridge broth, by adding a handful of rice (50g) with a pinch of salt (3.5g) and six bowls of water, and boiling until the rice has sprouted (about 15 minutes). , squeeze out a liter of porridge for children to drink gradually. Note that mixed porridge is only used during the day, preferably within 6 hours. Children under 2 years old, give each spoon, older children, sip from a cup or bowl. Use ORS solution or porridge, if the child is vomiting, need to stop, after 5-10 minutes to drink.
Prevention of respiratory infections for children
Prevention is better than cure is a motto that has existed for a long time. In order to prevent respiratory infections in the changing seasons for children, attention should be paid to eating, drinking, wearing, playing, and when the child sleeps. Children should not eat and drink cold foods, especially cold drinks. When the weather is cold, it is important to dress the child warmly even indoors. Going to the street (going out, going to school) should wear warm, have warm pus, scarf, mask, gloves, socks. In daily activities, each time children get wet clothes (children pee their clothes), they should be changed immediately and diapers need to be changed for children, not for children to play with water. You should take a warm bath for your child, bathe in an airtight room, after bathing, you need to wipe your body quickly and get dressed for the child. Do not let wind enter classrooms, bedrooms and children’s playrooms.
Children often have reflexes kicking all the blankets, adults need to pay attention to re-blanket them, otherwise, they will get respiratory infections due to colds.
Every day, children should practice oral hygiene, especially older children, so rinse your throat with sterile physiological saline. This mouthwash can be found at drugstores, inexpensive, convenient, hygienic and popular. Children need to eat enough nutrients, in addition, children should eat more fruit to have the necessary amount of micronutrients to create antibodies against infectious agents.