Children with anemia are difficult to recognize because the disease does not cause any symptoms. However, the disease still has visible signs such as pale skin, pale palms, difficulty sleeping, difficulty concentrating, playing tiring faster than other children.
What is anemia?
Anemia is an abnormality of red blood cells (HC) (also known as red blood cells) or children with lower than normal hemoglobin (hemoglobin is the building block of HC). HC acts as a “truck”, used to carry oxygen in the blood. When we breathe in, oxygen-containing air enters the lungs, oxygen is diffused from the lungs into the blood, where oxygen is attached to the surface of HC and HC carries oxygen to various organs in the body. A child with anemia may go unrecognized, because it does not cause any symptoms. The signs of anemia that are hard to see by parents such as pale skin, pale palms, difficulty sleeping, difficulty concentrating, playing tired faster than other children. Tachycardia is also a symptom of anemia, because anemia is the lack of oxygen-carrying HC, causing a lack of oxygen to the organs. Therefore, the body compensates by increasing the heart rate to push the blood away at a faster rate, which is understood as increasing the speed of the “vehicle” that carries oxygen up to carry enough oxygen for the tissue.
Why are children anemic?
HC is produced from the bone marrow. HC life averaged 120 days. Therefore, the bone marrow continuously produces red blood cells to compensate for the old HC death. Therefore, the causes of anemia include: HC was not produced enough, HC died too much, blood loss due to bleeding.
Insufficient HC production: most commonly due to iron deficiency. In food, iron is found in meat, beans, green leafy vegetables. Without iron, the body cannot make hemoglobin, so it can’t create HC, can’t create HC, there’s no “vehicle” to carry oxygen.
Folic acid and vitamin B12 are also essential ingredients to make HC. You can get vitamin B12 from food (meat, milk, eggs) and folic acid is found in fish, legumes, and grains. Vegetarians (who don’t eat meat) will be deficient in vitamin B12, because this vitamin is not found in green vegetables.
Anemia can be caused by improper production of HC in the bone marrow. Children often suffering from malnutrition, infections, and chronic bone marrow diseases produce less HC than usual. In very rare cases, bone marrow is unable to produce HC. Some drugs such as: anti-cancer drugs, also inhibits bone marrow to generate HC.
HC dies too much: there are many reasons that make HC life shorter than normal, causing HC to die more causing anemia. One of the reasons is HC shape change pathology. If we look through the microscope, normal HC is round and flattened. It’s the best shape for HC to travel through narrow places such as the small blood vessels to travel around the body.
A common genetic condition that changes the shape of HC is sickle-shaped HC. Sickle HC when passing through small, narrow blood vessels will rupture causing anemia. This is the most common of HC shape change diseases.
Bleeding from bleeding: When we lose a little blood, such as a cut on the hand or nose, the bone marrow can produce blood to compensate. But if we lose a lot of blood such as vomiting blood, having a serious accident, the bone marrow cannot produce enough HC to compensate for the blood loss quickly.
If someone has prolonged bleeding, it also leads to anemia. Because iron loss (due to blood loss) is greater than iron intake, iron deficiency causes anemia. Some common cases are: menstruation in women, helminths suck blood in the intestine, chronic inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract.
How to treat anemia?
Treatment of anemia depends on the cause. In children, the most common cause of anemia is a lack of iron in the diet. Therefore, it is necessary to give children a diet rich in iron such as meat, eggs, legumes, and green vegetables.
Some children need iron supplements to help their body make more blood. In other cases, doctors find there are special causes and need to do screening tests before treatment. Whatever the cause, a child with severe anemia needs a blood transfusion.
Children with anemia can easily regain health if treated properly. When HC is produced in abundance, oxygen is transferred to the full tissue, and the body becomes healthy again.