1. Role of zinc with immune enhancement
Zinc shortages in the world and in Vietnam
Zinc deficiency in children is a public health issue that is of concern in many countries, especially developing countries. About 30% of the world’s population is deficient in zinc and a large percentage of children under the age of 5 in developing countries suffer from zinc deficiency. In Viet Nam, the rate of zinc deficiency per child is 25-40% depending on the locality and age group of the study. The 2010 microbial deficiency survey of 586 children between 6 months and 75 months in Viet Nam showed a zinc deficiency rate of 51.9%.
Zinc has many important roles with the immune status, and growth of the body: Zinc helps to develop and maintain the effective functioning of the immune system, necessary for protecting the body against diseases, making wounds heal quickly. Zinc deficiency reduces the growth and function of most immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and bigoges. Zinc-deficient mice also saw a decrease in spleen production, hermus, and decreased production of immunoglobulins, including IgA, IgM and IgG. The activation of the ao daiesiocytes and the phenomenon of impaired aoocytes are also noticed in both laboratory animals and children with zinc deficiency. Therefore, zinc deficiency damages immune function, increases the risk of bacterial infections, thereby reducing the growth and development of the child, increasing the risk of malnutrition and death in the child. Interventional studies show that the addition of zinc to stunted malnourished children has a pronounced restorable effect both in terms of height and weight growth, increasing the concentration of the hormone IGF-1. According to research by Castillo – Duran, the addition of zinc to babies with low birth weight shows good growth in both height and weight in the first 6 months of life. A US study found that zinc supplementation helps reduce 18% of cases of diarrhea, 41% of pneumonia cases and reduces mortality by over 50%.
Zinc necessary for the growth of the body: Zinc is involved in the composition of over 300 metal enzymes. An indispensable catalyst of ARN-polymerasa, which plays an important role in the process of and synthesis of proteins. It therefore helps to increase cell division, promote growth. Therefore, without zinc, cell division is unlikely to severely affect both weight and height growth. In addition, zinc is involved in the biosynming and regulation of the function of the downal hormone axis such as GH (Growth hormone), IGF-I which are growth hormones and stimulate growth. Numerous studies have shown that zinc plays a role in promoting growth through the hormone IGF-I.
In addition, zinc also helps maintain and protect taste and olfactory cells. Zinc deficiency, the transformation of affected taste cells, causes anoredgyth due to i.m. taste disorders. Children with anore comes with malnutrition, which affects growth and development.
Zinc demand and zinc absorption in the body: Zinc demand in children under 1 year old is about 5mg/day, in children 1-10 years old about 10mg/day, adolescents and adults about 15mg/day for men and 12mg/day for women.
Supply of zinc to the body: Zinc feed is copper shrimp, eel, oysters, oysters, pork liver, milk, beef, egg yolk, fish, soybeans, oily seeds (almonds, cashews, peanuts ..). For infants, to get enough zinc, it is recommended to try breastfeeding because the zinc in breast milk is much easier to absorb than cow’s milk. The amount of zinc in breast milk in the first month is the highest (2-3 mg/liter), after 3 months it gradually decreases to 0.9mg/l. The amount of zinc that the mother lost through milk in the first 3 months was estimated at 1.4 mg/day. Therefore, the mother needs to eat a lot of foods rich in zinc to get enough for both mother and child. zinc and easy to absorb.
2. Selenium with immune boosting:
Selenium (Selenium) plays an essential role in the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that affects every component of the immune system, including the development and activity of leukocytes. Selenium deficiency causes suppression of immune function, on the contrary, if selenium ium supplementation strengthens and/or restores immunity. Lack of selenium also inhibits resistance to infection, a consequence of impaired leukocyte and sternum function. Selenium also plays a role in restoring genetic structures, participating in the activation of certain enzymes in the immune system, detoxifying some heavy metals.
The role of selenium in health:
The role of selenium in nutrition has long been known. In human nutrition, selenium is a necessary factor and a major component of at least 13 selenium-containing proteins. It is possible to group into glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, which is part of the cell’s antioxidant system. It has an important function in restoring the activity of free radicals produced during oxidation, which can destroy cells, make the aging process faster and cause chronic non-contagious diseases and cancer.
Selenium also plays an important role in growth:
Selenium is also needed for iodine transformation, with many studies have shown that serum selenium levels are often less meaningful in children with goi tumors than children of normal thyroid size. Besides selenium also functions as an enzyme, which is part of the process of creating thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are very weighted in stimulating energy input, necessary for growth, development and maintenance. The effect on thyroid hormone metabolism results in a change in the T3-T4 ratio, which appears when the serum selenium content drops below 0.9mmol/L.
Recommended selenium needs for Vietnamese children (mcg/day):
For children 0-6 months of selenium demand is 6 mcg/day, children 7-12 months are 10 mcg/day, 1-3 year olds are 17 mcg/day, 4-9 year olds are about 20 mcg/day, for 10-18 year olds the need is 26 mcg/day in women and 32 mcg/day in men. (Source: FAO/WHO (2002 and 2004)
Selenium-rich food sources: Organs such as kidneys, liver (from 0.4 mcg/g to 1.5 mcg/g), and animal foods including meat (from 0.1 mcg/g to 0.4 mcg/g) are selenium-rich food sources. The content is quite high in fish and seafood (20.8 – 40.5 to mcg/100g) and eggs (40.2 mcg to 14.9 mcg/100g). Moderate selenium content in poultry, peas and low in cow’s milk, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Germinated chickpeas are also rich in selenium and easily absorbed.
3. Vitamin A with immune boosting
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, which protects the eyes, fights chicken taps and dry eye diseases, ensures the normal development of skeletons, teeth, protects the mucosa and skin, strengthens the body’s resistance against bacterial infections.
Effects of vitamin A deficiency: Degeneration, keratosis of tissue cells, decreased body protection function; Causes dry eyes including Bitot streaks (X1B), dry cornea, corneal puree (X2/X3) resulting in corneal scarring (XS) and permanent blindness; Reduce immunity in children; Increases the incidence of disease in children; Increased mortality in children; Makes the child slow to grow up.
Early vitamin A deficiency can affect a child’s intellectual development when they reach school age.
Food sources rich in vitamin A
Animal-derived food is best rich in vitamin A or retinol. Since the liver is a reserve of vitamin A, the liver has the highest retinol composition. Fat from meat and eggs also contains a significant amount of vitamin A.
The source of pre-vitamin A – carotenoids is usually from some animal products such as milk, cream, butter and eggs. Plant-based foods are high in vitamin A such as yellow/red fruits, dark green vegetables, palm oil and other cooking oils. According to recent studies, when entering the body pre-vitamin A will be converted into vitamin A (in a ratio of 12:1 for ripe fruits and 22-24: 1 for greens).
Vitamin A needs to be consumed/day as follows: Children < 6 months: 375mcg; children 6 months – 3 years: 400mcg; children 4-6 years old: 450mcg; children 7-9 years old: 500mcg; children 10-18 years old: 600mcg; pregnant women: 800; Breastfeeding women: 850mcg/day.
4. Vitamin C (Ascrobic Acid) with Immune Boosting
Vitamin C acts as a reator, which functions as an antioxidant to protect the body against harmful oxidizing substances. When involved in hydroxylation reactions, vitamin C usually acts in combination with Fe2+ or Cu+ ions. The distinct role of vitamin C is to participate in the process of creating glue (collagen formation), synthesizing Carnitin, synthesizing neuro-transmita, activizing hormones, detoxifying the drug, being an antioxidant, helping to absorb and use iron, calcium and folic acid. In addition, vitamin C also has a function against allergies, which increases immune function; stimulates bile secretion and releases steroid hormones. Vitamin C is needed for converting cholesterol into bile acids, associated with detoxification.
Food sources: Fresh fruits and spices, leafy vegetables are rich in vitamin C are very available in Vietnam and South Asian countries.
Vitamin C needs: Children should < 6 months 25mg/day; children 6 months-6 years: 30mg/day; children 7-9 years old: 35mg/day; 10-18 years old: 65mg/day; Adults: 70mg/day; pregnant, lactating women: 80-90mg/day.